Jan 10, 2020

Understand Earthquake Early Warnings

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←Older revision Revision as of 00:55, 11 January 2020
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== Steps ==
 
== Steps ==
 
=== Understanding How EEW Systems Work ===
 
=== Understanding How EEW Systems Work ===
#Understand that earthquakes create two kinds of waves:  P-waves and S-waves.  P-waves cause little to no shaking and rarely cause earthquake damage.  S-waves cause strong shaking and are responsible for most injuries and deaths.<ref>https://ift.tt/2NdRxc7>
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#Understand that earthquakes create two kinds of waves:  P-waves and S-waves.  P-waves cause little to no shaking and rarely cause earthquake damage.  S-waves cause strong shaking and are responsible for most injuries and deaths.<ref>https://ift.tt/2NdRxc7>[[Image:Eq ed seismic waves.gif|center]]
#Know that the EEW system in your area uses this speed difference to estimate the magnitude, seismic intensity and arrival time of tremors.  When P-waves occur, a network of seismometers estimate the epicenter and the current location of waves.
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#Know that the EEW system in your area uses this speed difference to estimate the magnitude, seismic intensity and arrival time of tremors.  When P-waves occur, a network of seismometers estimate the epicenter and the current location of waves.[[Image:Eewbasics.gif|center]]
 
#Note technical limitations.<ref>http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/en/Activities/eew3.html</ref>  Besides the systems being only available in some countries, the information provided in an EEW is preliminary data from an earthquake.  In some cases, the information can be inaccurate.  For example, in 2018, Japan's EEW system miscalculated the intensity of two separate tremors.<ref>https://ift.tt/2R43S3D>
 
#Note technical limitations.<ref>http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/en/Activities/eew3.html</ref>  Besides the systems being only available in some countries, the information provided in an EEW is preliminary data from an earthquake.  In some cases, the information can be inaccurate.  For example, in 2018, Japan's EEW system miscalculated the intensity of two separate tremors.<ref>https://ift.tt/2R43S3D>
 
#* Most systems are in beta and only transmit to commercial users.
 
#* Most systems are in beta and only transmit to commercial users.
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#* You may not receive an EEW before feeling the temblor.  Conversely, you may receive an EEW and not feel shaking.
 
#* You may not receive an EEW before feeling the temblor.  Conversely, you may receive an EEW and not feel shaking.
 
#* EEW systems do not relay earthquake predictions or forecasts; rather, they share information about an earthquake in progress.<ref>https://ift.tt/30bCcOc>
 
#* EEW systems do not relay earthquake predictions or forecasts; rather, they share information about an earthquake in progress.<ref>https://ift.tt/30bCcOc>
#Know what an EEW looks or sounds like.  Depending on the country you are in, the alert may appear different.
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#Know what an EEW looks or sounds like.  Depending on the country you are in, the alert may appear different.[[Image:EEW Japan.png|center]]
 
#* In Japan, you will see or hear text on your mobile phone, TV screen, or radio:  「緊急地震速報です。強い揺れに警戒して下さい。」 / "Kinkyū jishin sokuhō desu. Tsuyoi yure ni keikai shite kudasai." ("This is an earthquake early warning.  Please prepare for strong tremors.")<ref>https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Earthquake_Early_Warning_(Japan)&oldid=933823942</ref>  If traveling to Japan, you can get emergency alerts in English by downloading the NHK app to your smartphone.
 
#* In Japan, you will see or hear text on your mobile phone, TV screen, or radio:  「緊急地震速報です。強い揺れに警戒して下さい。」 / "Kinkyū jishin sokuhō desu. Tsuyoi yure ni keikai shite kudasai." ("This is an earthquake early warning.  Please prepare for strong tremors.")<ref>https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Earthquake_Early_Warning_(Japan)&oldid=933823942</ref>  If traveling to Japan, you can get emergency alerts in English by downloading the NHK app to your smartphone.
 
#* In Mexico, you will hear a siren and the words "Alerta Sísmica".  You may also see or hear this on your radio or television.<ref>https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mexican_Seismic_Alert_System&oldid=919337200</ref>  You may not be able to get the alerts in English, but you can recognize the sound of the siren and know to take cover.
 
#* In Mexico, you will hear a siren and the words "Alerta Sísmica".  You may also see or hear this on your radio or television.<ref>https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mexican_Seismic_Alert_System&oldid=919337200</ref>  You may not be able to get the alerts in English, but you can recognize the sound of the siren and know to take cover.
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=== Knowing the Applications ===
 
=== Knowing the Applications ===
 
The EEW systems in your area are already being used commercially and by emergency services.
 
The EEW systems in your area are already being used commercially and by emergency services.
#Know that EEW systems stop elevators.  This is important as electricity could be cut to the lift, trapping occupants.  Worse, the cables could break, causing the elevator to fall!  When an EEW is issued, a "SEISMIC" light illuminates inside the elevator to alert occupants that the elevator is being stopped due to an earthquake and that they should prepare for tremors after the doors open.
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#Know that EEW systems stop elevators.  This is important as electricity could be cut to the lift, trapping occupants.  Worse, the cables could break, causing the elevator to fall!  When an EEW is issued, a "SEISMIC" light illuminates inside the elevator to alert occupants that the elevator is being stopped due to an earthquake and that they should prepare for tremors after the doors open.[[Image:3902679624_d50597665a.jpg|center]]
#Note that transit systems such as [[:Category:Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART)|BART]]<ref>https://ift.tt/2FEOd5r> and the [[:Category:Traveling by Train in Japan|Japan Railway]]<ref>https://ift.tt/2uDxkWE> use EEW systems to stop trains.  In the event of an earthquake, trains automatically slow down and stop to protect against high-speed derailments.
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#Note that transit systems such as [[:Category:Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART)|BART]]<ref>https://ift.tt/2FEOd5r> and the [[:Category:Traveling by Train in Japan|Japan Railway]]<ref>https://ift.tt/2uDxkWE> use EEW systems to stop trains.  In the event of an earthquake, trains automatically slow down and stop to protect against high-speed derailments.[[Image:BART Millbrae train 4420.jpg|center]]
#Understand that EEW systems are used to protect people as well.  If an EEW is issued, the general public is notified through the Emergency Alert System (in the United States), J-Alert (in Japan), the Seismic Alert System (Mexico), and similar systems.  They are also notified through smartphone apps, public address (PA) systems, and fire alarm systems.
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#Understand that EEW systems are used to protect people as well.  If an EEW is issued, the general public is notified through the Emergency Alert System (in the United States), J-Alert (in Japan), the Seismic Alert System (Mexico), and similar systems.  They are also notified through smartphone apps, public address (PA) systems, and fire alarm systems.[[Image:Know Naturally when an Earthquake Will Strike Step 5 Version 2.jpg|center]]
 
#Know that this list is not exhaustive.  There are too many applications of EEW for all of them to be included in this article.  This page lists just a few common applications of EEW systems.
 
#Know that this list is not exhaustive.  There are too many applications of EEW for all of them to be included in this article.  This page lists just a few common applications of EEW systems.
 
=== How to Respond ===
 
=== How to Respond ===
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</ref><ref>https://ift.tt/2Tb3MK3>
 
</ref><ref>https://ift.tt/2Tb3MK3>
 
==== In the Home or Other Structures ====
 
==== In the Home or Other Structures ====
#[[React During an Earthquake|Drop, cover, and hold on]].  Whether you receive an EEW or feel shaking, you should know how to prepare.  First, get down to the floor.  Then, crawl underneath a piece of sturdy furniture such as a table or desk.  Make sure to protect your head.  Finally, hold your position until shaking stops and prepare to move with the furniture.
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#[[React During an Earthquake|Drop, cover, and hold on]].  Whether you receive an EEW or feel shaking, you should know how to prepare.  First, get down to the floor.  Then, crawl underneath a piece of sturdy furniture such as a table or desk.  Make sure to protect your head.  Finally, hold your position until shaking stops and prepare to move with the furniture.[[Image:Prepare for an Earthquake Step 2 Version 3.jpg|center]]
 
#Lock, cover, and hold on if you cannot crouch down to the floor.  First, lock your wheelchair by applying its brake.  Then, bend over as far as possible and use household objects such as books to protect your head.  Finally, hold your position until shaking stops.
 
#Lock, cover, and hold on if you cannot crouch down to the floor.  First, lock your wheelchair by applying its brake.  Then, bend over as far as possible and use household objects such as books to protect your head.  Finally, hold your position until shaking stops.
#Turn off cooking appliances if it is safe to do so before taking cover.  These appliances can potentially start a fire if left unattended.  Make sure all controls on stoves, ovens, and microwaves are set to OFF before seeking cover.
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#Turn off cooking appliances if it is safe to do so before taking cover.  These appliances can potentially start a fire if left unattended.  Make sure all controls on stoves, ovens, and microwaves are set to OFF before seeking cover.[[Image:Use a Gas Stove Step 11.jpg|center]]
#Open exit doors if you can before tremors start.  This will prevent them from jamming, leaving you with a possible evacuation route.
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#Open exit doors if you can before tremors start.  This will prevent them from jamming, leaving you with a possible evacuation route.[[Image:Prepare for a House Fire Step 8.jpg|center]]
 
#Follow instructions of emergency personnel or staff/faculty if in a public building.  They may provide you additional things that you need to do to protect your lives.  For example, they may inform you to turn off dangerous machinery or to move away from displays.
 
#Follow instructions of emergency personnel or staff/faculty if in a public building.  They may provide you additional things that you need to do to protect your lives.  For example, they may inform you to turn off dangerous machinery or to move away from displays.
#Evacuate if you detect obvious hazards.  If you observe smoke, fire, or gas, leave the building and [[Call Emergency Services|call emergency services]].  Also, evacuate (on foot) to higher ground if you are within a [[Survive a Tsunami|tsunami hazard zone]].  Do not wait for a tsunami warning.
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#Evacuate if you detect obvious hazards.  If you observe smoke, fire, or gas, leave the building and [[Call Emergency Services|call emergency services]].  Also, evacuate (on foot) to higher ground if you are within a [[Survive a Tsunami|tsunami hazard zone]].  Do not wait for a tsunami warning.[[Image:Stay Safe During a Tsunami Step 7.jpg|center]]
 
==== [[Survive an Earthquake in Your Car|While Driving]] ====
 
==== [[Survive an Earthquake in Your Car|While Driving]] ====
#Turn on the hazard lights.  This will alert other drivers of the impending earthquake.  Other drivers may be unaware of what is happening.  Whether you receive an EEW or feel shaking, you should know how to prepare.
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#Turn on the hazard lights.  This will alert other drivers of the impending earthquake.  Other drivers may be unaware of what is happening.  Whether you receive an EEW or feel shaking, you should know how to prepare.[[Image:Survive an Earthquake in Your Car Step 1 Version 2.jpg|center]]
#Carefully slow down your vehicle.  Avoid sudden braking or swerving, as it could potentially cause an accident.
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#Carefully slow down your vehicle.  Avoid sudden braking or swerving, as it could potentially cause an accident.[[File:Brake and Stop a Car in the Shortest Distance Step 1 Version 2.jpg|center]]
#Pull over to the shoulder of the road, if possible.  Stop your vehicle away from hazards, such as bridges, tunnels, and overpasses.
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#Pull over to the shoulder of the road, if possible.  Stop your vehicle away from hazards, such as bridges, tunnels, and overpasses.[[Image:Be a Better Driver Step 17.jpg|center]]
#[[Park a Car|Park your car]].  Set the parking brake firmly.  That way, your vehicle will shift less and not collide with other hazards.
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#[[Park a Car|Park your car]].  Set the parking brake firmly.  That way, your vehicle will shift less and not collide with other hazards.[[Image:Survive an Earthquake in Your Car Step 5 Version 2.jpg|center]]
 
#Do not leave your vehicle.  Stay in your car until shaking stops.  That way, you are protected from most hazards, such as falling street signs, lights or power lines.
 
#Do not leave your vehicle.  Stay in your car until shaking stops.  That way, you are protected from most hazards, such as falling street signs, lights or power lines.
#[[Call Emergency Services|Call emergency services]] if you cannot safely drive or leave your vehicle after tremors stop.  You should not leave your vehicle if [[React if a Power Line Falls on Your Car|a power line has fallen on your car]] or if there are other hazards that may stop you from exiting your vehicle safely.
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#[[Call Emergency Services|Call emergency services]] if you cannot safely drive or leave your vehicle after tremors stop.  You should not leave your vehicle if [[React if a Power Line Falls on Your Car|a power line has fallen on your car]] or if there are other hazards that may stop you from exiting your vehicle safely.[[Image:Call Emergency Services Step 2 Version 2.jpg|center]]
#Continue driving carefully.  Drive slowly, and prepare for cracks in roads, landslides, liquefaction, or fallen debris.
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#Continue driving carefully.  Drive slowly, and prepare for cracks in roads, landslides, liquefaction, or fallen debris.[[Image:Survive an Earthquake in Your Car Step 7 Version 2.jpg|center]]
#Evacuate if you detect obvious hazards.  If your vehicle catches fire, exit and [[Call Emergency Services|call emergency services]].  Also, evacuate (on foot) to higher ground if you are within a [[Survive a Tsunami|tsunami hazard zone]].  Do not wait for a tsunami warning.
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#Evacuate if you detect obvious hazards.  If your vehicle catches fire, exit and [[Call Emergency Services|call emergency services]].  Also, evacuate (on foot) to higher ground if you are within a [[Survive a Tsunami|tsunami hazard zone]].  Do not wait for a tsunami warning.[[Image:Stay Safe During a Tsunami Step 7.jpg|center]]
 
==== While Outside ====
 
==== While Outside ====
#Carefully move away from structures.  Street lights, buildings, towers, and power lines are a few hazards you should stay away from in the event you receive an EEW or feel shaking.
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#Carefully move away from structures.  Street lights, buildings, towers, and power lines are a few hazards you should stay away from in the event you receive an EEW or feel shaking.[[Image:Survive an Earthquake Step 11 Version 2.jpg|center]]
 
#* One major hazard is a brick façade, as that could potentially break apart and fall.
 
#* One major hazard is a brick façade, as that could potentially break apart and fall.
#[[React During an Earthquake|Drop, cover, and hold on]].  First, get down to the ground.  Then, protect your head with objects such as books.  Finally, hold your position until shaking stops.
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#[[React During an Earthquake|Drop, cover, and hold on]].  First, get down to the ground.  Then, protect your head with objects such as books.  Finally, hold your position until shaking stops.[[Image:Survive an Earthquake Step 12 Version 2.jpg|center]]
 
#Lock, cover, and hold on if you cannot get to the ground.  First, lock your wheelchair by applying its brake.  Then, bend over as far as possible and use household objects such as books to protect your head.  Finally, hold your position until shaking stops.
 
#Lock, cover, and hold on if you cannot get to the ground.  First, lock your wheelchair by applying its brake.  Then, bend over as far as possible and use household objects such as books to protect your head.  Finally, hold your position until shaking stops.
#Evacuate (on foot) to higher ground if you are within a [[Survive a Tsunami|tsunami hazard zone]].  Do not wait for a tsunami warning.
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#Evacuate (on foot) to higher ground if you are within a [[Survive a Tsunami|tsunami hazard zone]].  Do not wait for a tsunami warning.[[Image:Stay Safe During a Tsunami Step 7.jpg|center]]
 
 
 
== Video ==
 
== Video ==
   
 
 
== Warnings ==
 
== Warnings ==
 
* There may be false EEWs from time-to-time.
 
* There may be false EEWs from time-to-time.


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